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Severe Chronic Depression


If present, these increase risk over one's lifetime.

Chronic factors could potentially develop into Acute Risk Factors, which are more serious and potentially life threatening. The presence of chronic risk factors requires vigilance and safety planning but may not require hospitalization or emergency care. Clinicians should assess if the risk level is low, moderate or high.


  • White, American Indian, Male, Older
  • Divorce, Early Widowhood
  • History of Suicide Attempts – especially if repeated
  • Prior Suicide Ideation
  • History of Self-Harm Behavior
  • History of Suicide or Suicidal Behavior in Family
  • Parental History of:
    • Violence
    • Substance Abuse (Drugs or Alcohol)
    • Hospitalization for Major Psychiatric Disorder
    • of Divorce
  • History of Trauma or Abuse (Physical or Sexual)
  • History of Psychiatric Hospitalization
  • History of Frequent Mobility
  • History of Violent Behaviors
  • History of Impulsive/Reckless Behaviors
  • Predisposing and Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors
  • Major Axis I Psychiatric Disorder, especially:
    • Mood disorder
    • Anxiety Disorder
    • Schizophrenia
    • Substance Use Disorder (Alcohol Abuse or Drug Abuse/Dependence)
    • Eating Disorders
    • Body Dysmorphic Disorder
    • Conduct Disorder
  • Axis II Personality Disorder, especially Cluster B
  • Axis III Medical Disorder, especially if involves functional impairment and/or chronic pain)
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Co-morbidity of Axis I Disorders (especially depression and alcohol misuse), of Axis I and Axis II

(especially if Axis II Disorder is Antisocial PD or Borderline PD), of Axis I and Axis III Disorders